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Anatomy & Phsyiology
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Chapter 5

Tissues

Epithelial Tissues
  • General Characterstics:
  • Covers all free body surfaces and is major tissue of glands
  • Basement membrane anchors it to connective tissue, little to no blood supply and is constantly replaced
  • Functions: protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion

http://www.complab.nymc.edu/Histology/Epithelium/Epithe2.jpg

Simple Squamos Epithelium

  • Single layer of thin, flattened cells wich substances can pass through
  • Functions: exchange gases in the lungs and lines blood and lymph vessels, and membranes within the thorax and abdomen

http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab4/IMAGES/eoithelium%20simple%20squamous%20surface%20copy.jpg

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

  • Single layer of cube-shaped cells
  • Function: secretion and absorption in kidneys and various glands

http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/miller/01366fig6-3.gif

Simple Columnar Epithelium

  • Elongated cells within nucleus near the basement membrane
  • Lines the uterus and digestive tract
  • Function: protection, secretion and absorption
  • Absorptive cells often have microvilli
  • Tissues usually have goblet cells that secret mucus

http://science.tjc.edu/Course/BIOLOGY/1409/simple_columnar_ep.jpg

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

  • Nuclei are at two or more levels
  • Cell membrane may have cilia to move mucus over th surface of tissue
  • Lines tubes of the respiratory system

http://www.technion.ac.il/~mdcourse/274203/slides/Epithelium/6-Pseudostratified%20Columnar%20Epithelium.jpg

Stratified Squamos Epithelium

  • Many layers of cells, the topmost of which are flattened
  • Function: protects underlying cells from environmental effects
  • Covers the skin, oral cavity, throat, vagina, and anal canals

http://www.technion.ac.il/~mdcourse/274203/slides/Epithelium/7-Stratified%20Squamous%20Epithelium.jpg

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

  • Two or three layers of cube shaped cells
  • Lines the larger ducts of the sweat and salivary glands and pancreas
  • Function is protection

http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/epithel/small/Epth016s.JPG

Stratified Columnar Epithelium

  • Two layers: top elongated columnar cells and bottom are layer cube shaped cells
  • It is in the vans deferens, part of the male urethra and parts of the pharynx
  • Function: protection and secretion

http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/anatomy/MicroscopicAnatomy/Images/Plate23.jpg

Transitional Epithelium
  • Tissue is specialized to become distended
  • In the walls of organs of the urinary tract
  • Function: prevents contents of urinary passageways from diffusing out

http://neuromedia.neurobio.ucla.edu/campbell/urinary/wp_images/47_transitional_epithelium.gif

Glandular Epithelium

Connective Tissue

  • General Characteristics:
  • Function: connects, supports, protects, provides a framework, fills spaces, stores fat, produces blood cells, protects against infection, helps repair damaged tissues
  • Usually have considerable intercellular material between them
  • Intercellular matrix consists of fibers and ground substance

Major Cell types

  • Fibroblasts produce collagenous and elastic fibers
  • Macrophages are phagocytes
  • Mast cells may release heparin and histamine and usually are near blood vessels

Connective Tissue Fibers

Categories of connective tissue

  • Loose connective tissue, adipose reticular connective tissue, dense connective tissue, and elastic connective tissue
  • Specialized connective tissue include cartlige, bone, and blood

Loose Connective Tissue

Adipose Tissue

Reticular connective tissue

Dense Connective Tissue

Elastic Connective Tissue

Cartilage

  • Cartilage provides the framework for many structures
  • Intercellular material composed of fibers and gel like ground substance
  • Lacks direct blood supply and is slow to heal
  • Cartilagenous structures enclosed in perichondronium which contains blood vessles
  •  Major types: Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
  • Found at the ends of bones, in teh ear, larynx, and inteh pads between the bones of the spinal column, pelvic girdle, and knees
  • http://www.creatinemonohydrate.net/images/cartilage.gif

Bone

Blood

Muscle Tissue

Skeletal Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Nervous Tissue

  • Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
  • Neurons - sense change and respond by transmitting nerve impulse to other neurons or to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  • They coordinate, regulate, and intergrate body activites
  • Neurological cells bind and support nervous tissues
  • They carry on phagocytosis and connect neurons to blood vessels
  • Some are involoved in cell to cell communication
  • http://learning.mgccc.cc.ms.us/science/tissue/img026.JPG

Serous Membranes

  • Organs that line body cavities lacking openings to the outside
  • They are composed of epithelium and loose connective tissue
  • Secrete watery serous fluid that lubricates membrane surfaces
  • http://www.lionden.com/Serous-membrane.jpg

Mucous Membranes

  • Organs that line cavities and tubes opening to the outside of the body
  • Composed of epithelium and loose connective tissue
  • Cells of mucous membranes secrete mucous
  • Cunaeous membrane is teh external body covering commonly called skin
  • Synovial membranes are organs that line joints
  • http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgnov01/Image54m.jpg

 



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