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Anatomy & Phsyiology
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Chapter 5


Epithelial Tissues
  • General Characterstics:
  • Covers all free body surfaces and is major tissue of glands
  • Basement membrane anchors it to connective tissue, little to no blood supply and is constantly replaced
  • Functions: protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion

Simple Squamos Epithelium

  • Single layer of thin, flattened cells wich substances can pass through
  • Functions: exchange gases in the lungs and lines blood and lymph vessels, and membranes within the thorax and abdomen

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

  • Single layer of cube-shaped cells
  • Function: secretion and absorption in kidneys and various glands

Simple Columnar Epithelium

  • Elongated cells within nucleus near the basement membrane
  • Lines the uterus and digestive tract
  • Function: protection, secretion and absorption
  • Absorptive cells often have microvilli
  • Tissues usually have goblet cells that secret mucus

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

  • Nuclei are at two or more levels
  • Cell membrane may have cilia to move mucus over th surface of tissue
  • Lines tubes of the respiratory system

Stratified Squamos Epithelium

  • Many layers of cells, the topmost of which are flattened
  • Function: protects underlying cells from environmental effects
  • Covers the skin, oral cavity, throat, vagina, and anal canals

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

  • Two or three layers of cube shaped cells
  • Lines the larger ducts of the sweat and salivary glands and pancreas
  • Function is protection

Stratified Columnar Epithelium

  • Two layers: top elongated columnar cells and bottom are layer cube shaped cells
  • It is in the vans deferens, part of the male urethra and parts of the pharynx
  • Function: protection and secretion

Transitional Epithelium
  • Tissue is specialized to become distended
  • In the walls of organs of the urinary tract
  • Function: prevents contents of urinary passageways from diffusing out

Glandular Epithelium

Connective Tissue

  • General Characteristics:
  • Function: connects, supports, protects, provides a framework, fills spaces, stores fat, produces blood cells, protects against infection, helps repair damaged tissues
  • Usually have considerable intercellular material between them
  • Intercellular matrix consists of fibers and ground substance

Major Cell types

  • Fibroblasts produce collagenous and elastic fibers
  • Macrophages are phagocytes
  • Mast cells may release heparin and histamine and usually are near blood vessels

Connective Tissue Fibers

Categories of connective tissue

  • Loose connective tissue, adipose reticular connective tissue, dense connective tissue, and elastic connective tissue
  • Specialized connective tissue include cartlige, bone, and blood

Loose Connective Tissue

Adipose Tissue

Reticular connective tissue

Dense Connective Tissue

Elastic Connective Tissue


  • Cartilage provides the framework for many structures
  • Intercellular material composed of fibers and gel like ground substance
  • Lacks direct blood supply and is slow to heal
  • Cartilagenous structures enclosed in perichondronium which contains blood vessles
  •  Major types: Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
  • Found at the ends of bones, in teh ear, larynx, and inteh pads between the bones of the spinal column, pelvic girdle, and knees



Muscle Tissue

Skeletal Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Nervous Tissue

  • Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
  • Neurons - sense change and respond by transmitting nerve impulse to other neurons or to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  • They coordinate, regulate, and intergrate body activites
  • Neurological cells bind and support nervous tissues
  • They carry on phagocytosis and connect neurons to blood vessels
  • Some are involoved in cell to cell communication

Serous Membranes

  • Organs that line body cavities lacking openings to the outside
  • They are composed of epithelium and loose connective tissue
  • Secrete watery serous fluid that lubricates membrane surfaces

Mucous Membranes

  • Organs that line cavities and tubes opening to the outside of the body
  • Composed of epithelium and loose connective tissue
  • Cells of mucous membranes secrete mucous
  • Cunaeous membrane is teh external body covering commonly called skin
  • Synovial membranes are organs that line joints


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