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Anatomy & Phsyiology
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Chapter 1

I.  Human Body

A.  Why study anatomy & physiology?
          - medical advances
          - public knowledge (stay healthy)
          - prepare for career in medical field
 
B.  Functional process common to al living things
          - complimentary structure & function
          - hiearcy of structural organization
          - homeostasis ~ maintaning biological balance
 
C.  Anatomy & Physiology
          - complimentary sciences
          - anatomy ~ study of form/structure and how they relate to one another
               *orientation & articulation
          - physiology-function of structure machinery in order to carry out life
               sustaining activities *function
 
D.  Subdivsions of Anatomy & Physiology
          - gross ~ anything seen with the naked eye
          - regional ~ body structure in one particular part of body
          - systematic ~ various systems of anatomy & physiology
          - surface ~ study through skin (manipulation & palpation)
          - microscopic ~ need microscope; cystology & histology
          - developmental ~ embryology
         
E.  Principles of Complimentary Structure & Function
          - function always reflects structure
          - bones -->calcium --> support & protection
          - heart -->1 way valves --> pumps blood
          - lungs-->large surface area -->large surface area
 
F.  Hiearcy of Structure Organization
          - chemical level ~ simplest
          - atoms --> molecules --> macromolecules --> organelles --> cell -->
             tissues --> organs --> organ system --> organism
          - tissue ~ epithelia (outer covering), muscle (causes movement),
            connective tissue (ligaments, tenatnts), nervous
          - organ system ~ group of organs working together for a common goal
          - cardiovascular ~ heart, lungs, vessels --> carries nutrients to tissues
            & carries waste away
          - digestive ~ mouth, esophogus, stomach, intestines, rectum, anus
             needs fuel/nutrients
          - integument ~ skin
          - muscular ~ cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, striated muscles
          - nervous ~ nerves, brain
          - endocrine ~ hormones, glands
          - respiratory ~ lungs, blood vessels, heart
          - lymphatic ~ immune system (lymphnodes & vessels)
          - urinary ~ kidneys, bladder, eurethra
          - reproductive ~ genitals, ovaries, testes
 
G.  Necessary Life Functions
          - maintain a boundary (human boundary is skin); maintains moisture
            and protection from bacterial invasion/viral/chemical factors
          - movement ~ all movement (walking, running, swimming)
            muscular/skeletal systems; contractility - muscle shortening
          - responsiveness to enviromental stimuli via nerves & electrical impulses
          - digestion ~energy, nutrition, enzyme catalysts
          - metabolism ~ cellular respiration, supplies nutrients to body via blood;
            controlled through hormones
          - extretion ~ disposal of waste CO2 + H2O --> carbonic acid;
            solid materials (ruffage); nitrogen --> urine
          - reproduction ~ cellular (mitosis) ; procreation (meiosis)
          - growth/repair ~ through mitosis
 
I.  Requirements of Organisms
          - water ~ chemical susbtance; for metabolic processes, as a medium
            for metabolic reactions, to transport substances, regulate body temp.
          - food ~ various chemical substance; to supply energy & raw materials
            for production of necessary substances & for regulation of vital
            reactions; energy requirements
          - oxygen ~ chemical substance; cellular respiration & helps release
            energy from food substances
          - heat ~ form of energy; regulates rates of metabolic processes
          - pressure ~ force for breathing; helps circulate blood
         
J.  Homeostasis
          - maintain stable internal conditions while external environment changes
          - communication ~ nervous system & through endocrine system
          - 3 components of homeostatic control; CNS, receptor cells, effector
            cells
        
K.  Negative Feedback
          - receptor ~ identifies stimulus (5 senses)
          - CNS ~ control center (how to react)
          - effector cells ~ muslce; decreases the stimulus
          - non biological thermostat
          - biological blood sugar
 
L.  Positive Feedback
         - result/response of the stimulus is enhanced so output is accelerated
         - example: blood clotting & enhanced labor contractions
 
M.  Homeostatic Imbalance
          - disturbance in homeostasis
          - when negative feedback reponses are overwhlemed, destructive 
           positive responses take over 
 
N.  Language of Anatomy
          - anatomical position & directional terms:
          - anatomical position ~ reference point, standard body position;
            body erect, palms forward, thumbs away from body
          - regional terms :
          - axial ~ axis of body; trunk, head, & neck
          - appendicular ~ appendeges, limbs
          - body planes :
          - sagital plane ~ right & left seperation symmetry
          - frontal (coronal plane) ~ divides ventral/dorsal or front/back
          - traverse ~ divides body into superior/inferior or top/bottom
          - obliqe ~ angle cut
          - superior ~ towards head
          - inferior ~ away from head
          - anterior ~ belly
          - posterior ~ back
          - medial ~ towards midline
          - lateral ~ away from midline
          - intermediate ~ in between medial & lateral
          - proximal ~ closer to trunk of body
          - distal ~ further from axial
          - superficial ~ close to the skin
          - deep ~ closer to inside
 
O.  Body Cavities/membranes
          - dorsal cavity ~ from head to tip of spine; contains brain & spinal cord
          - ventral cavity ~ belly; pleural cavity (lungs) & peracardial cavity
             (heart, esophogus, & trachea)
          - pelvic cavity ~ ovaries, uterus, testes & urinary system
 
P.  Regions/quadrants
          - right hypochondriac region
          - epigastric region
          - left hypochondriac region
          - right lumbar
          - umbilical region
          - left lumbar
          - right iliac region
          - hypogastric
           -left iliac region
 
Q.  Systems
          - integumentary ~ boundry, protection, insulation
          - skeletal ~ ligaments, cartrige, bones (long, spongy, flat)
          - muscular ~ smooth, striated, caridiac
          - nervous ~ communication, brain & spinal cord, peripheral n. system
          - endocrine ~ secretes hormones, form of communication, glands
          - cardiovascular ~ heart, blood, vessels, arteries, veins, gas exchange
          - lymphadic ~ lymphnodes, vessels, immune response, spleen
          - digestive ~ esophogus, stomach, intestines, rectum, anus, liver
          - respitory ~ trachea, lungs, bronchii, aveoli, lungs
          - urinary ~ kidneys, bladder, urethra, ureters
          - male reproductive ~ testes, vasdeferins, semial vessicle
          - female reproductive system ~ ovaries, fallopian tube, vagina, uterus
 
 
 



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